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"An argument is any group of propositions where one proposition is claimed to follow from the others, and where the others are treated as furnishing grounds or support for the truth of the one. This means that a good thesis is crucial to your essay.An argument is not a mere collection of propositions, but a group with a particular, rather formal, structure. For argumentative or persuasive essays, the thesis is sometimes called a , or a claim.
Every debater is an advocate; the purpose of each speaker is to gain the belief of the audience for his side.
Argument is the core of the debate speech—the superior debater must be superior in the use of argument.
The only conclusion that uses all of our given statements is that W is a subset of C, as asserted by statement 4. If you had any sense of social responsibility, you would leave immediately. The army is notoriously inefficient, so we cannot expect Major Smith to do an efficient job. God exists because the Bible tells us so, and we know that what the Bible tells us must be true because it is the revealed word of God. Congress shouldn't bother to consult the Joint Chiefs-of-Staff about the military appropriations. Brown: I will give no more money to your cause next year. I might cite all the divines almost, from the foundation of Christianity, who have ever treated of this or any other theological subjects: but I shall confine myself, at present, to one equally celebrated for piety and philosophy. But there is more juvenile delinquency than ever before. Therefore the middleweight boxing champion should be severely punished, for he assaults all of his opponents. As a manufacturer he cannot be expected to realize that our aim is to educate the youth, not to make a profit. There is no proof that the secretary "leaked" the news to the papers, so she can't have done it. Diamonds are seldom found in this country, so you must be careful not to mislay your engagement ring. Was it through stupidity of through deliberate dishonesty that the Administration has hopelessly botched its foreign policy?
Had our third statement been "no warm-blooded animals are subject to colds," our diagram would have been the one shown at the right and our conclusion would have been "no whales are subject to colds." If you have read Alice's Adventures in Wonderland or Through the Looking-Glass , you know that their author, Lewis Carroll, delighted in giving sets of nonsense statements which lead to logical conclusions. As members of the armed forces, they will naturally want as much money for military purposes as they think they can get. Solicitor: That's all right, sir, we'll just put you down for the same amount that you gave this year. When we had got to this point in the argument, and every one saw that the definition of justice had been completely upset, Thrasymachus, instead of replying to me, said: "Tell me, Socrates, have you got a nurse? This makes it clear that to eliminate delinquency among the youth we must abolish the schools. You say we ought to discuss whether or not to buy a new car now. In either case, unless you are in favor of stupidity or dishonesty, you should vote against the incumbents. Since all men are mortal, the human race must some day come to an end. Four men, whom we shall call Robert, Ralph, Ronald, and Rudolph, were playing cards one evening.
Thus, after having thought well on this matter, and after examining all things with care, I must finally conclude and maintain that this proposition: I am, I exist, is necessarily true every time that I pronounce it or conceive it in my mind. The citizen who so values his "independence" that he will not enroll in a political party is really forfeiting independence, because he abandons a share in decision©making at the primary level: the choice of the candidate.
This article is reprinted from pages 78-79 of Pearson-Allen: Modern Algebra , Book One. In drawing logical conclusions it does not matter whether the statements we accept as true are reasonable or sensible. This is because we depend entirely upon the form of the statements and not upon what we are talking about. It can be used against you in an argument, but if you are familiar with them, you will be able to refute the fallacious argument. (Here, the conclusion of one argument is used as a premise in another. This is very common.) Even though there may be a deceiver of some sort, very powerful and very tricky, who bends all his efforts to keep me perpetually deceived, there can be no slightest doubt that I exist, since he deceives me; and let him deceive me as much as he will, he can never make me be nothing as long as I think I am something. Many of the important points of this section are covered in the section on writing Argumentative Essays: Being Logical. This document is part of a collection of instructional materials used in the Purdue University Writing Lab.You might want to review that section first and then come back here for a more thorough review of the principles of logic. The on-line version is part of OWL (On-line Writing Lab), a project of the Purdue University Writing Lab, funded by the School of Liberal Arts at Purdue.Your readers must know what your position is and must see that you have supported your main idea with convincing minor points." (Gilbert H. Wiener, "Debate is the process of presenting arguments for or against a proposition.Propositions for which people argue are controversial and have one or more individuals presenting the case for the proposition while others present the case against it.The chief means of persuasion in debate is the logical mode." (Robert B.Huber and Alfred Snider, "[It often requires] some work to extract a clear representation of an argument from any given prose passage.