An abstract may or may not have the section title of "abstract" explicitly listed as an antecedent to content.
Abstracts are typically sectioned logically as an overview of what appears in the paper, with any of the following subheadings: Background, Introduction, Objectives, Methods, Results, Conclusions.
For example, articles in the biomedical literature are available publicly from MEDLINE which is accessible through Pub Med.
An academic abstract typically outlines four elements relevant to the completed work: although some publications' standard style omits references from the abstract, reserving them for the article body (which, by definition, treats the same topics but in more depth).
Most literature database search engines index only abstracts rather than providing the entire text of the paper.
Full texts of scientific papers must often be purchased because of copyright and/or publisher fees and therefore the abstract is a significant selling point for the reprint or electronic form of the full text.An abstract is a brief summary of a research article, thesis, review, conference proceeding, or any in-depth analysis of a particular subject and is often used to help the reader quickly ascertain the paper's purpose.When used, an abstract always appears at the beginning of a manuscript or typescript, acting as the point-of-entry for any given academic paper or patent application.Abstracts in which these subheadings are explicitly given are often called structured abstracts.Abstracts that comprise one paragraph (no explicit subheadings) are often called unstructured abstracts.Utilizing these effects, the neonate can gain up to 90% of the thrust needed to move alongside the mother at speeds of up to 2.4 m/s.A comparison with observations of eastern spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) is presented, showing savings of up to 60% in the thrust that calves require if they are to keep up with their mothers.Second is the displacement effect, in which the motion of the mother causes the water in front to move forwards and radially outwards, and water behind the body to move forwards to replace the animal's mass.Thus, the calf can gain a 'free ride' in the forward-moving areas.An abstract may act as a stand-alone entity instead of a full paper.As such, an abstract is used by many organizations as the basis for selecting research that is proposed for presentation in the form of a poster, platform/oral presentation or workshop presentation at an academic conference.