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Individuals with index tuberculosis cases who are HIV infected, particularly those with advanced immunosuppression, were hypothesized to be less likely than HIV-uninfected individuals with tuberculosis to transmit to household contacts, possibly because of a greater likelihood of having smear-negative tuberculosis and a shorter duration of infectiousness due to more rapid progression to death [18, 19].
Antiretroviral therapy reduces the risk of tuberculosis among people with HIV infection (PLHIV) by 67% and, if scaled up, may contribute to a reduction in tuberculosis case rates at a population level [20, 21].
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Tuberculosis remains a global health problem with an enormous burden of disease, estimated at 10.4 million new cases in 2015.
In a large study of household contacts in Peru, smear-positive index cases were associated with a higher risk of infection among household contacts, compared with smear-negative index cases, regardless of the age of the household contacts .
Persons with smear-negative tuberculosis cases may, however, also transmit tuberculosis .
Tuberculosis case notifications among children infections to zero.
The purpose of this article is to give a high-level overview of the discussion at the workshop regarding what is known about tuberculosis transmission and to set the scene for the articles that address specific aspects of tuberculosis transmission.
Persons with active pulmonary or laryngeal tuberculosis generate droplet nuclei that contain through coughing, singing, shouting, sneezing, or any other forceful expiratory maneuver that shears respiratory secretions from the airways, with coughing being the most efficient at generating infectious aerosols .
Appropriate treatment of individuals with infectious tuberculosis results in a rapid reduction in infectiousness .