Theories Of Problem Solving

Theories Of Problem Solving-14
Sanna has previously held positions at Bucknell University and Washington State University, and was a Visiting Scholar at the University of Michigan.

Sanna has previously held positions at Bucknell University and Washington State University, and was a Visiting Scholar at the University of Michigan.

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Personality Type and Problem Solving Researchers have investigated the relationship of Jung's theory of individuals' preferences and their approach to problem solving and decision making (e.g., Lawrence, 1982, 1984; Mc Caulley, 1987; Myers & Mc Caulley, 1985). When solving problems, individuals preferring introversion will want to take time to think and clarify their ideas before they begin talking, while those preferring extraversion will want to talk through their ideas in order to clarify them.

In addition, Is will more likely be concerned with their own understanding of important concepts and ideas, while Es will continually seek feedback from the environment about the viability of their ideas.

This second strategy is the perspective of this paper.

The purpose of this paper is to relate a model of the problem-solving process to a theory of personality type and temperaments in order to facilitate problem solving by focusing on important individual differences.

Researchers have studied the relationship between personality characteristics and problem-solving strategies (e.g., Heppner, Neal, & Larson, 1984; Hopper & Kirschenbaum, 1985; Myers, 1980), with Jung's (1971) theory on psychological type serving as the basis for much of this work, especially as measured by the MBTI (Myers & Mc Caulley, 1985).

One conclusion that may be drawn from these investigations is that individual differences in problem solving and decision making must be considered to adequately understand the dynamics of these processes (Stice, 1987).Mc Caulley (1987) attempted to do this by first focusing on individual differences in personality and then by presenting four steps for problem solving based on Jung's (1971) four mental processes (sensing, intuition, thinking, and feeling).Another strategy would be to consider first the problem-solving process and then to integrate individual preferences or patterns within this process.Separate research on personality and cognitive styles has identified important individual differences in how people approach and solve problems and make decisions.This paper relates a model of the problem-solving process to Jung's theory of personality types (as measured by the MBTI) and identifies specific techniques to support individual differences.Most researchers describe the problem-solving/decision-making process as beginning with the perception of a gap and ending with the implementation and evaluation of a solution to fill that gap.Each phase of the process includes specific steps to be completed before moving to the next phase.Although there is increasing agreement regarding the prescriptive steps to be used in problem solving, there is less consensus on specific techniques to be employed at each step in the problem-solving/decision-making process.There is concurrent and parallel research on personality and cognitive styles that describes individuals' preferred patterns for approaching problems and decisions and their utilization of specific skills required by these processes (e.g., encoding, storage, retrieval, etc.). degrees in clinical psychology from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. D'Zurilla spearheaded a new area of study on the role of social problem solving in adjustment and the efficacy of problem-solving training/therapy as a treatment and prevention method. Goldfried, "Problem Solving and Behavior Modification" (1971, (No. Since the publication of this classical article, Dr. He has taught a variety of courses related to social and personality psychology, and he has published numerous articles in the areas of social cognition, personality processes, social judgment, and group influences.

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