Speech Synthesis Research Paper

Speech Synthesis Research Paper-56
For specific usage domains, the storage of entire words or sentences allows for high-quality output.Alternatively, a synthesizer can incorporate a model of the vocal tract and other human voice characteristics to create a completely "synthetic" voice output.

For specific usage domains, the storage of entire words or sentences allows for high-quality output.Alternatively, a synthesizer can incorporate a model of the vocal tract and other human voice characteristics to create a completely "synthetic" voice output.

The quality of a speech synthesizer is judged by its similarity to the human voice and by its ability to be understood clearly.

An intelligible text-to-speech program allows people with visual impairments or reading disabilities to listen to written words on a home computer. First, it converts raw text containing symbols like numbers and abbreviations into the equivalent of written-out words.

A computer system used for this purpose is called a speech computer or speech synthesizer, and can be implemented in software or hardware products.

A text-to-speech (TTS) system converts normal language text into speech; other systems render symbolic linguistic representations like phonetic transcriptions into speech.

Kelly's voice recorder synthesizer (vocoder) recreated the song "Daisy Bell", with musical accompaniment from Max Mathews. Clarke was visiting his friend and colleague John Pierce at the Bell Labs Murray Hill facility.

Clarke was so impressed by the demonstration that he used it in the climactic scene of his screenplay for his novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, Linear predictive coding (LPC), a form of speech coding, began development with the work of Fumitada Itakura of Nagoya University and Shuzo Saito of Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT) in 1966. LPC was later the basis for early speech synthesizer chips, such as the Texas Instruments LPC Speech Chips used in the Speak & Spell toys from 1978.Synthesized speech can be created by concatenating pieces of recorded speech that are stored in a database.Systems differ in the size of the stored speech units; a system that stores phones or diphones provides the largest output range, but may lack clarity.The next sections formulate several important tasks of the natural language processing stage (input text preprocessing, letter-to-phone conversion, acoustic database preparation) and discuss the design philosophy of the corresponding modules, implementation decisions and evaluation experiments.A distinct section is devoted to an acoustic-phonetic study that assisted the phone-set selection and acoustic database generation.Speech synthesis is one of the most language-dependent domains of speech technology.In particular, the natural language processing stage of a text-to-speech (TTS) system contains the largest part of the linguistic knowledge for a given language.Many computer operating systems have included speech synthesizers since the early 1990s. This process is often called text normalization, pre-processing, or tokenization.The front-end then assigns phonetic transcriptions to each word, and divides and marks the text into prosodic units, like phrases, clauses, and sentences.Using this device, Alvin Liberman and colleagues discovered acoustic cues for the perception of phonetic segments (consonants and vowels).The first computer-based speech-synthesis systems originated in the late 1950s. developed the first general English text-to-speech system in 1968, at the Electrotechnical Laboratory in Japan.

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