Solving Gas Law Problems

Solving Gas Law Problems-48
In the last section we saw that Charles’ Law relates the volume of a gas to its temperature; Boyle’s Law relates volume to pressure; and Avogadro’s Law relates volume to the number of moles of gas present, as well as a number of other relationships between P, V, n, and T.

In the last section we saw that Charles’ Law relates the volume of a gas to its temperature; Boyle’s Law relates volume to pressure; and Avogadro’s Law relates volume to the number of moles of gas present, as well as a number of other relationships between P, V, n, and T.

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Before substituting in the values of n, T, and P, we must change the units of temperature to Kelvins.

P and n are already in the right units: atmospheres and moles, respectively.

First, solving the ideal gas law for V involves a little basic algebra.

Simply divide both sides by P and the equation becomes V = n RT/P.

In practice, the units of V are almost always liters, while P is most often either in torr or in atmospheres.

If P is measured in atmospheres, V in liters, and T in Kelvins, the value of the gas constant is found to be 0.08205 Latm/Kmole.This means that most gases behave ideally to about two significant digits.In practice, gases whose behavior deviates from the ideal gas law by more than about 1% are typically those with large, multi-atom molecules (say, ten atoms or more) or medium-sized molecules capable of hydrogen bonding.In it, you will measure n, T, P, and V for a sample of hydrogen gas, then use these values to compute the value of the gas constant, R.The actual value of R will depend on the units that you use for P and V (n is always in moles and T in Kelvins).All of the gases we will deal with in this lesson obey the ideal gas law with errors no larger than about 1% and in most cases much less than this.Top of page The two most common problems you will be asked to solve using the Ideal Gas Law are problems involving a single set of conditions and problems involving a set of initial conditions and a change in one or more of the variables. ” An example of the second type of problem might be: “A sample of gas exerts a pressure of 1.0 atm at a temperature of 250 K in a 250 m L container.The symbol “R” in this equation is a constant called “the gas constant” and its value can be computed by measuring the temperature, volume, and pressure of a known quantity of an ideal gas and substituting these values into the Ideal Gas Law solved for R.In fact, this is the bases of the laboratory exercise for this lesson.The two operations you will most often use are multiplying both sides of an equation by some quantity and dividing both sides of an equation by some quantity in order to solve it.At times you may also need to add or subtract quantities from both sides of an equation.

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