Short Essay On Nervous System

When the electric impulse arrives, the presynaptic membrane of the axon releases neurotransmitters that bind to the postsynaptic receptors of the dendrites of the next cell.The activated state of these receptors alters the permeability of the dendritic membrane and the electric depolarization moves along the plasma membrane of the neuron to its axon.

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The function of the myelin sheath is to improve the safety and speed of neural impulse transmission along the axon.

The myelin sheath serves as an electrical insulator, preventing the dispersion of the impulse into other adjacent structures. In the central nervous system (CNS), the myelin sheath is made of an apposition of oligodendrocyte membranes.

The axon is the long membrane projection that transmits the neural impulse at a distance to other neurons, to muscle cells and to other effector cells.

Synapses are the structures that transmit a neural impulse between two neurons.

Neurotransmitters trigger the receptors on the next nerve cell dendrites to produce a new electrical current.

Different types of nerves use different neurotransmitters to convey impulses across the synapses.Afference is the conduction of sensory impulses and efference is the conduction of effector impulses (impulses that command some action in the body). Nerves are axon-containing structures which are home to a large number of axons and which are covered by connective tissue.Nerves connect neural nuclei and ganglia with tissues.Glial cells and neurons are the cells that form the nervous system.Neurons are cells that have the function of receiving and transmitting neural impulses whereas glial cells (astrocytes, microgliacytes, ependymal cells and oligodendrocytes) are the cells that support, feed and insulate (electrically) the neurons.Dendrites are projections of the plasma membrane that receive the neural impulse from other neurons.The cell body is where the nucleus and the main cellular organelles are located.The structures that form the nervous system can be divided into the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS).The organs of the CNS are the brain (cerebrum, brainstem and cerebellum) and spinal cord. In addition to these organs, the meninges (dura-mater, arachnoid and pia-mater) are also a part of the nervous system, since they cover and protect the encephalon and the spinal cord.Examples of neural ganglia are the ganglia that contain the cell bodies of sensory neurons in the dorsal roots of the spinal cord and the ganglia of the myenteric plexus, which are responsible for the peristaltic movements of the digestive tract.In the central nervous system (CNS), concentrations of neuron bodies are called nuclei and not ganglia.

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