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It is the chief characteristic that distinguishes him from other animals.The development of reason and language are both functions of perfectibility.For man to "perfect himself" is not necessarily for him to become perfect, but rather for his physical and mental capacities to be remolded, time and time again.
Natural law sets out a framework within which people act for their own utility, and which, for Hobbes and Grotius, is intended to provide a solid basis for ending religious and political disagreements.
The question that the Discourse sets out to answer is whether inequality is authorized by natural law: that is, whether differences between men are "natural" and useful things. He asks how we can have a law of nature if we do not understand the real nature of man.
Whilst the savage person cares only for his survival, civilized man also cares deeply about what others think about him.
This is a deeply harmful psychological deformation, linked to the development of human reason and political societies.
Rousseau traces the development of amour propre back to the first village festivals, in which competition to dance and sing well increases the villagers' awareness of each other's talents and abilities.
Amour propre is best expressed in a society in which wealth dominates; there, all are compared on an insubstantial and harmful basis.
Moral inequality - Also called political inequality, moral inequality is based upon unnatural foundations.
It is created not by Nature but by a convention or agreement between consenting men.
One of the aims of the reconstruction of human nature that Rousseau offers is to show that an idea of natural right was possible before man became social and created political institutions, and thus he claims that the state of nature was not the terrible place that some suggest. Nature - Nature does a great deal of work in the Discourse.
Several meanings of the term are evident: first, human nature is a description of a being's behavior and capabilities; second, Nature is a collection of living organisms, and the environment in which man exists; third, and most important, Nature is also a divine force or power, that directs and shapes human development.