The remain sections of the paper are structured as follows: the first section discusses three main categories of multi-agent robot systems, the second section focuses on discussion of problems and some current issues of multi-agent systems and the final section is the conclusions with some challenges and recommendations for future research direction in the field of cooperative multi-agent systems.
A wide means of research in cooperative multi-agent robots systems have focused on the three main elements which are (1) types of agents; homogeneous and heterogeneous, (2) control architectures; reactive, deliberative and hybrid, and (3) communication; implicit and explicit.
 in 2013 (most of the reviewed papers were published from 2000 to 2013).
They presented a systematic survey and analysis of multiple mobile robot systems coordination.
Most of the papers were published from 2010 to 2015 which the recent research papers on cooperative multi-agent systems have been reviewed.
The main contributions of this paper are (i) the most reflected and affected key elements and current issues in cooperative mobile robots and (ii) directions and future challenges for the multi-agents robot, with recommendations and related suggestions.
Table 1 shows the research conducted by previous researchers using their heterogeneous agents.
The selection of control architectures for multi-agent robots is based on the capabilities of each agent to work in the groups and it also depends on how the overall systems work.
The benefits received from information sharing among agents, data fusion, distribution of task, time and energy consumption have made the multi-agents research still relevant until present.
There were many researchers who focused on cooperative multi-agent research.