Literally, "vivisection" means "live sectioning" of an animal, and historically referred only to experiments that involved the dissection of live animals.
The term is occasionally used to refer pejoratively to any experiment using living animals; for example, the Encyclopædia Britannica defines "vivisection" as: "Operation on a living animal for experimental rather than healing purposes; more broadly, all experimentation on live animals", The earliest references to animal testing are found in the writings of the Greeks in the 2nd and 4th centuries BC.
For the purposes of this Research Topic, service dogs and miniature horses, and emotional support animals, are collectively referred to as assistance animals.
Therapy animals and other animal-assisted interventions are outside the scope of this topic.
Animals, predominantly dogs, have increasing roles performing useful specific tasks and offering meaningful support and comfort to people with disabilities.
Uses of assistance animals accelerated in the 1980s and, in the United States, people using service animals were given protection under the Americans ...
Sources of laboratory animals vary between countries and species; most animals are purpose-bred, while a minority are caught in the wild or supplied by dealers who obtain them from auctions and pounds.
The Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the United States National Academy of Sciences has argued that animal research cannot be replaced by even sophisticated computer models, which are unable to deal with the extremely complex interactions between molecules, cells, tissues, organs, organisms and the environment.
Examples of applied research include testing disease treatments, breeding, defense research and toxicology, including cosmetics testing.
In education, animal testing is sometimes a component of biology or psychology courses.