Scholar Romesh Chunder Dutt writes that "the Ramayana, like the Mahabharata, is a growth of centuries, but the main story is more distinctly the creation of one mind." There has been discussion as to whether the first and the last volumes (Bala Kanda and Uttara Kanda) of Valmiki's Ramayana were composed by the original author.
Most Hindus still believe they are integral parts of the book, in spite of some style differences and narrative contradictions between these two volumes and the rest of the book.
16th century) both in Odia, sant Eknath's Bhavarth Ramayan (c.
16th century) in Marathi, Tulsidas' Ramcharitamanas (c.
A Times of India report dated 18 December 2015 informs about the discovery of a 6th-century manuscript of the Ramayana at the Asiatic Society library, Kolkata.
The Ramayana text has several regional renderings, recensions and sub recensions. Goldman differentiates two major regional revisions: the northern (n) and the southern (s).The definition of itihāsa is a narrative of past events (purāvṛtta) which includes teachings on the goals of human life.According to Hindu tradition, Ramayana takes place during a period of time known as Treta Yuga.In its extant form, Valmiki's Ramayana is an epic poem of some 24,000 verses.The text survives in several thousand partial and complete manuscripts, the oldest of which is a palm-leaf manuscript found in Nepal and dated to the 11th century CE.13th century), Madhava Kandali's Saptakanda Ramayana in Assamese (c.14th century), Krittibas Ojha's Krittivasi Ramayan (also known as Shri Rama Panchali) in Bengali (c. 15th century) and Balaram Das' Dandi Ramayana (also known as the Jagamohan Ramayana) (c.The characters Rama, Sita, Lakshmana, Bharata, Hanuman, and Ravana are all fundamental to the cultural consciousness of the South Asian nations of India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and the South-East Asian countries of Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia, and Indonesia.There are many versions of Ramayana in Indian languages, besides Buddhist, Sikh, and Jain adaptations.) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Mahābhārata.Along with the Mahābhārata, it forms the Hindu Itihasa.