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Similar to the process of DNA replication, the new nucleic acid strand elongates in a 5'-3' direction, as shown in Figure 10-2.The enzyme selects complementary bases from available nucleotides and positions them in an m RNA molecule according to the principle of complementary base pairing.
First, however, the codons are transcribed to the m RNA molecule.
Thus, the m RNA molecule consists of nothing more than a series of codons received from the genetic message in the DNA.
For protein synthesis to occur, several essential materials must be present, such as a supply of the 20 amino acids, which comprise most proteins.
Another essential component is a series of enzymes that will function in the process.
The chain of m RNA lengthens until a “stop” message is received. The DNA double helix opens, and the enzyme RNA polymerase synthesizes a molecule of m RNA according to the base sequence of the DNA template.
The nucleotides of the DNA strands are read in groups of three.There are also non-coding RNA molecules (nc RNAs), which are not directly involved in protein synthesis.These will be further discussed in the section “Gene Control,” later in this chapter Transcription is one of the first processes in the mechanism of protein synthesis.(During transcription, only one DNA strand serves as a template for RNA synthesis.The other DNA strand remains dormant.) The enzyme moves along the DNA strand and “reads” the nucleotides one by one.When protein synthesis is taking place, enzymes link t RNA molecules to amino acids in a highly specific manner.For example, t RNA molecule X will link only to amino acid X; t RNA molecule Y will link only to amino acid Y. In the nucleus, messenger RNA is constructed from DNA’s code of base pairs and carries the code into the cytoplasm or to the rough endoplasmic reticulum where protein synthesis takes place.In transcription, a complementary strand of m RNA is synthesized according to the nitrogenous base code of DNA.To begin, the enzyme RNA polymerase binds to an area of one of the DNA molecules in the double helix.Messenger RNA is synthesized in the nucleus using the DNA molecules.During the synthesis, the genetic information is transferred from the DNA molecule to the m RNA molecule.