These were followed in 2016 by the "Florence Principles", seven basic principles for doctorates in the arts laid out by the European League of Institutes of the Arts, which have been endorsed by the European Association of Conservatoires, the International Association of Film and Television Schools, the International Association of Universities and Colleges of Art, Design and Media, and the Society for Artistic Research.
In some countries like China and Japan, a recipient of doctorate in disciplines such as engineering and pharmacology where professional degrees (for example, Eng D and Pharm D) are usually awarded in the western countries, is called a Ph D regardless.
The Ph D degree in Computer Science is obtained primarily through supervised research.
It is awarded upon fulfillment of the following requirements: For applicants with a degree of Master of Science in Computer Science or Master in Computer Science without a research-based thesis, the following are the remedial academic requirements before entering into the Plus a research-based paper published in a national or international refereed CS conference.
Since its inception, it has grown to be one of the largest health training institutions in the country and boasts an undergraduate and postgraduate student corps of over 6 000.
Students who join this Faculty will be part of a new generation of health professionals.
As part of a sandwich program, a Ph D candidate is encouraged to spend 3 to 12 months of dissertation research at a host university in a foreign country to provide him with opportunities to discuss research work with international experts.
The program accepts applicants who have an MS degree in Computer Science with research-based thesis and at least one research-based paper published in a national or international refereed CS conference.
It is not uncommon that the person's title or diploma be translated into English as Ph D in (that discipline) In the context of the Doctor of Philosophy and other similarly titled degrees, the term "philosophy" does not refer to the field or academic discipline of philosophy, but is used in a broader sense in accordance with its original Greek meaning, which is "love of wisdom".
In most of Europe, all fields (history, philosophy, social sciences, mathematics, and natural philosophy/sciences) other than theology, law, and medicine (the so-called professional, vocational, or technical curriculum) were traditionally known as philosophy, and in Germany and elsewhere in Europe the basic faculty of liberal arts was known as the "faculty of philosophy".