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Benzodiazepines have a binding site on the GABA-A receptor, which forms a channel through the membrane and opens and closes to control chloride flow into the cell.When benzodiazepine agonists act on their receptor site, GABA produces a more frequent opening of the channel, so that the flow of chloride is increased.Risks of both abuse and cognitive or psychomotor impairments have to be balanced against therapeutic benefits.
The Z-drugs are likely to possess smaller residual next day sequelae than clinically equivalent doses of most benzodiazepines.
Any prescription for benzodiazepines must be preceded by a careful risk–benefit analysis considering the issues of an individual’s particular life situation, personality style and psychiatric diagnosis.
The sleep disturbance is observed at least three times per week and for at least one month.
Some of the most common risk factors for the development of insomnia are: Diazepam is a benzodiazepine.
Patients who work in any high accident risk environment (e.g.
with heavy machinery), as well as those where cognitive failure could cause accident to themselves or others, should be warned about possible interactions of benzodiazepines with alcohol.Those benzodiazepines that have the long-acting metabolite -desmethyldiazepam in common (e.g. Pharmacokinetic parameters constitute the basis for a rational dosage regimen.diazepam, prazepam, clorazepate) are eliminated relatively slowly, others are metabolised rather rapidly (e. In anticonvulsant and anti-anxiety treatment, stable blood levels of the drug are pursued so that compounds with long elimination half-lives of parent drug or active metabolites are of advantage.As a result, the neuron will be less likely to go through depolarisation, which ultimately results in neuronal inhibition.For this reason, all GABAergic drugs produce sedation.Mr AB, a 21-year-old pharmacy student, came to the local pharmacy last week with a seven-day prescription for diazepam 10mg tablets, one to be taken at night.The drug was prescribed to him by his GP because around five weeks ago Mr AB started suffering from insomnia.Because of pharmacokinetic changes of pro-nordiazepam molecules (e.g.diazepam) associated with ageing, the elderly may be at increased risk.Type I and type II GABA receptors have been identified; benzodiazepines bind with relative non-selectivity to both types.There are several other drugs that are also ligands of the GABA–chloride ion receptor complex, notably barbiturates, chloral hydrate and the newer non-benzodiazepine hypnotics, zopiclone, zolpidem and zaleplon (‘Z’-drugs).