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Many Native American tribes fought for either side in the war including: the Delaware, Catawba, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Huron, Iroquois Confederacy, Kickapoo, Lumbee, Odawa, Ojibwe (Chippewa), Osage, Pamunkey, Pequot, Powhatan, Potawatomi, Seminole and Shawnee.Like other American communities, some tribes had members fighting on either side of the war.At the beginning of the war, Albert Pike was appointed as Confederate envoy to Native Americans.
At the outbreak of the war, for example, the majority of the Cherokees sided with the Union, but soon after allied with the Confederacy.
28,693 Native Americans served in the Union and Confederate armies during the Civil War, participating in battles such as Pea Ridge, Second Manassas, Antietam, Spotsylvania, Cold Harbor, and in Federal assaults on Petersburg.
When President Lincoln found out about the incident, he immediately requested full information about the convictions.
He assigned two attorneys to examine the cases and differentiate between those guilty of murder and those who simply engaged in battle.
General Pope, as well as Long Trader Sibley, whose refusal to allow the Sioux access to food had been largely responsible for the war, were angered by Lincoln's failure to immediately authorize the executions.
In addition, they arrested the rest of the Santee Sioux, 1,700 people, of whom most were women and children, although they were accused of no crime.In the summer of 1862, Federal troops captured Chief Ross, who was paroled and spent the remainder of the war in Washington and Philadelphia proclaiming Cherokee loyalty to the Union army.Promoted to brigadier general in May 1864, Watie was placed in charge of the Indian Cavalry Brigade, which was composed of the 1st and 2nd Cherokee Cavalry and battalions of Creek, Osage and Seminole. at Pleasant Bluff on the Arkansas River, near the present-day town of Tamaha, Oklahoma, on June 10, 1864, capturing the steamboat and its supplies, valued at 0,000.Native Americans served in both the Union and Confederate military during the American Civil War.They were found in the Eastern, Western, and Trans-Mississippi Theaters.During the Civil War, there was no distinction made when a Native American joined the U. They were assigned to the Army of the Potomac just as Gen. Lee signed at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865. Despite the Federal government's promise to pardon all Cherokee involved with the Confederacy, the entire Nation was considered disloyal, and their rights were revoked. Stand Watie was the last Confederate general to surrender, laying down arms two months after Gen. In addition, Long Trader Sibley refused the Santee Sioux access to food until the funds were delivered.In frustration, the Santee Sioux, led by Little Crow (Ta-oya-te-duta), attacked settlers in order to get supplies.They distinguished themselves in the Peninsula Campaign, at Second Manassas, and Antietam, and in the trenches at Petersburg. Grant's military secretary and was a trained attorney, was once rejected for Union military service because of his race. Kirby Smith, commander of all troops west of the Mississippi.A monument in Columbia, South Carolina, honors the Catawbas' service in the Civil War. Well into the twentieth century, the word "colored" included not only African Americans, but Native Americans as well. Company K participated in the Battle of the Wilderness and Spotsylvania, and captured 600 Confederate troops at Shand House east of Petersburg. Parker, a member of the Seneca tribe, created the articles of surrender which General Robert E. At Appomattox, Lee is said to have remarked to Parker, "I am glad to see one real American here", to which Parker replied, "We are all Americans." The Cherokee Nation was the most negatively affected of all Native American tribes during the Civil War, its population declining from 21,000 to 15,000 by 1865. From January to May 1863, there were almost continuous fights in the New Mexico territory, as part of a concerted effort by the Federal government to contain and control the Apache; in the midst of all this, President Abraham Lincoln met with representatives from several major tribes, and informed them he felt concerned they would never attain the prosperity of the white race unless they turned to farming as a way of life.This was the last major battle of the Civil War in Indian Territory.The Delaware demonstrated their "loyalty, daring and hardihood" during the attack of the Wichita Agency, or the Tonkawa Massacre in October 1862.