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Phylogenetic analysis shows that these mussel species diverged approximately 110.4 million years ago.Many gene families, especially those for stabilizing protein structures and removing toxic substances from cells, are highly expanded in B.
Our study of the genomic composition allowing symbiosis in extremophile molluscs gives wider insights into the mechanisms of symbiosis in other organisms such as deep-sea tubeworms and giant clams.
The environment of deep-sea hydrothermal vents and methane seeps is characterized by darkness, lack of photosynthesis-derived nutrients, high hydrostatic pressure, variable temperatures and high concentrations of heavy metals and other toxic substances.
platifrons, indicating adaptation to extreme environmental conditions. platifrons is considerably more complex than that of other lophotrochozoan species, including M.
philippinarum, with substantial expansion and high expression levels of gene families that are related to immune recognition, endocytosis and caspase-mediated apoptosis in the gill, revealing presumed genetic adaptation of the deep-sea mussel to the presence of its chemoautotrophic endosymbionts.
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Hydrothermal vents and methane seeps are extreme deep-sea ecosystems that support dense populations of specialized macrobenthos such as mussels.
1b) in the family Mytilidae using a whole-genome shotgun approach and compared their features ( Supplementary Note 1). The deep-sea and shallow-water mussel genome contained 96.3% and 93.7% complete and partial universal single-copy metazoan orthologous genes, respectively, indicating the completeness of the assembly and gene models ( Supplementary Note 6).
Both assembled genomes were highly repetitive ( Supplementary Fig. As with other bilaterians, the two mussel genomes contained all the expected Hox and Para Hox genes, as well as similar numbers of micro RNAs, again suggesting that the assemblies encapsulate a nearly complete representation of genic information ( Supplementary Note 13 and 14). platifrons contain endosymbiotic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB), the host scaffolds did not contain bacterial nucleotide sequences, showing a lack of horizontal gene transfer from the symbiont. platifrons has a lower rate of heterozygosity compared to the other three bivalves with a sequenced genome ( Supplementary Fig.