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Human memories are often prone to memory errors and distortions (Loftus, 2005; Straube, 2012).One commonly studied memory error is false memory, which refers to memories or details in memories that are fictitious or altered (Straube, 2012).
In his 1959 article On the prediction of occurrence of particular verbal intrusions in immediate recall Deese attempted to better understand why, when reciting a previously learned list of words, people sometimes recall a word that was never presented.
He orally presented 50 undergraduate students with lists of 12 words, all strongly associated to a nonpresented critical lure, and then immediately after each list was presented asked the students to recall all the items from the list.
bed, rest, awake, tired, dream, wake, snooze, blanket, doze, slumber, snore, nap, peace, yawn, drowsy) and then requires the subject to remember as many words from the list as possible.
Typical results show that subjects recall a related but nonpresented word (e.g.
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The Deese–Roediger–Mc Dermott (DRM) paradigm is a procedure in cognitive psychology used to study false memory in humans.
The procedure was pioneered by James Deese in 1959, but it was not until Henry L.
The results identified important differences between young and adult offenders; with subjective measures being better able to discriminate between all of the groups in adult offenders than in young offenders.
Objective measures of impulsive behaviour were also able to discriminate between all groups in adult male offenders, whereas, in young offenders, these measures only discriminated between those who are vulnerable to self-harm (both at imminent risk and with a history) and the general prison population.