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It applications include control electrical appliances, home tele-monitoring, and give intelligent suggestions inside the house automatically and wirelessly.Figure 2.2: Smart Home using RFID and WSN  Case study 3 Case study on Paper “Bus Management System Using RFID in WSN” by Ben Ammar Hatem and Hamam Habib (2009)  In this paper, intelligent bus tracking application applying integration of RFID and wireless sensor network technology to monitor whether the bus will be arriving on time, early or late inside the bus station is introduced. As shown in Figure 2.3, first, each bus will has its own UHF tag.You can view samples of our professional work here.
This architecture is good for wide range but no real-time requirement.
The last architecture which is the Mini node network architecture uses IEEE 802.15.4/Zig Bee standard protocol as its platform since there is little data flow and reduced cost.
In Physical layer, 802.11b/Wi-Fi uses the unlicensed 2.4 GHZ band and Discrete Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) technique. In MAC sub-layer, 802.11b/Wi-Fi uses Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) scheme, which will improve the efficiency of network.
This architecture is good for real-time operation but limited range.
It uses backscatter technique to communicate with the tag and provides higher read range compared to HF and LF technology.
As for the antenna, they used Alien circular antenna to read RFID tags to improve orientation of reading.The mobile RFID reader will use the proposed architecture so-called “RF Energy Generator” to be powered up by master reader or slave reader.Thus, these mobile readers will act like passive readers.As shown in Figure2.2 below, the system consists of following reader components: Master Reader (MR), a number of Slave Readers (SR), and Mobile RFID (MRFID) Reader The Master reader is a conventional powerful fixed reader with a direct fixed or wireless connection to the smart home server.It starts the read process of slave readers and power up passive tags for reading process.By using this architecture, the reader from the forklift will sense signal from each mini node and will move toward the signalled mini node to perform tasks like move rotating parts of a machine automatically.The communication protocol between the readers and tags is based on RFID standard protocols like UHF.Distributed reduced functional sensor reader network architecture uses Zig Bee protocol as its platform.The reasons are Zig Bee uses lower power consumption in physical layer and MAC layer, more reliable and low cost.Problems like under employment of buses fleet and long waiting time at the bus station can be minimised.Case study on paper “Intelligent Traffic Management System Base on WSN and RFID” by Lejiang Guo, Wei Fang, Guoshi Wang and Longsheng Zheng (2010)  This paper introduces Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) base on RFID and WSN, and discusses the hardware and software design principles of the system. It consists of Access and Terminal Layer, Application Processing Layer, and Data storage and access management.