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Source: "1860 Free Population - Preliminary," Steven Ruggles and Matthew Sobek, Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 2.0 (Minneapolis: Historical Census Projects, University of Minnesota, 1997). In what region was the African-American population most likely to live in rural settings? Given the information in Table 1, can you make some conjectures about the free black population of the South?In what region was it might likely to live in urban ones? Do you think free blacks in the South would be more or less likely than slaves to live in urban areas? Imagine the kinds of work free African Americans in the North may have undertaken in rural and urban areas.In fact, by 1825, 36 percent of the slaves in the Western hemisphere lived in the U. This was partly due to higher birth rates, which were in turn due to a more equal ratio of female to male slaves in the U. A Kentucky court acknowledged the dual character of slaves in (1838): “[S]laves are property and must, under our present institutions, be treated as such.
Source: "1860 Free Population - Preliminary," Steven Ruggles and Matthew Sobek, Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 2.0 (Minneapolis: Historical Census Projects, University of Minnesota, 1997). In which region were free African Americans most likely to claim some property? What general conclusions might we draw from these data about free black life in the three regions of the United States? Based on this information, draw some conjectures about what life might have been like for free black Northerners. In which region did free African Americans own the most property relative to white Americans? Based on this information, draw some conjectures about what life might have been like for free black Northerners. The table is useful, but may not portray the complete picture.
In which was the free black population least likely? In which region were free African Americans nearly as likely as white Americans to hold property? Source: "1860 Free Population - Preliminary," Steven Ruggles and Matthew Sobek, Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 2.0 (Minneapolis: Historical Census Projects, University of Minnesota, 1997). According to these data, in which region did free African Americans claim the most average property? Can you think of ways that the table may present an incomplete portrait of free black property owning?
At the time of the American Revolution, fewer than 10 percent of the half million slaves in the thirteen colonies resided in the North, working primarily in agriculture. Slaves comprised less than a tenth of the total Southern population in 1680 but grew to a third by 1790. South Carolina, North Carolina, and Maryland each had over 100,000 slaves.
New York had the greatest number, with just over 20,000. Vermont was the first Northern region to abolish slavery when it became an independent republic in 1777. At that date, 293,000 slaves lived in Virginia alone, making up 42 percent of all slaves in the U. After the American Revolution, the Southern slave population exploded, reaching about 1.1 million in 1810 and over 3.9 million in 1860. Despite their numbers, slaves typically comprised a minority of the local population.
TABLE 3 Slaves as a Percent of the Total Population selected years, by Southern state (1970). They enjoyed an exceptional rate of natural increase. For example, the South grew half to three-quarters of the corn crop harvested between 18.
Writing A Ma Thesis - Life In The Old South Before The Civil War
Unlike elsewhere in the New World, the South did not require constant infusions of immigrant slaves to keep its slave population intact. Central to the success of slavery are political and legal institutions that validate the ownership of other persons.The resulting census data offers historians a treasure-trove of information about everyday Americans who might not otherwise have left traces in the historical record.Instructors may choose to present and discuss these tables with the entire class, or may divide the class up into four groups, each of which may consider its table and questions on its own before reporting back to the class.That is, why were free blacks numerous where they were, and why were enslaved African Americans numerous where they were? Based on this table, make some conjectures about what life might have been like for free African Americans in the northern states.Consider the racial attitudes they may have confronted, their ability to find jobs, and the strength of their communities. This table does not distinguish between free and enslaved African Americans. Not long after Columbus set sail for the New World, the French and Spanish brought slaves with them on various expeditions. Nearly 4 million slaves with a market value estimated to be between .1 and .6 billion lived in the U. Such valuable property required rules to protect it, and the institutional practices surrounding slavery display a sophistication that rivals modern-day law and business.Colonial slavery had a slow start, particularly in the North.The proportion there never got much above 5 percent of the total population. Masters enjoyed rates of return on slaves comparable to those on other assets; cotton consumers, insurance companies, and industrial enterprises benefited from slavery as well.But a far greater proportion of slaves arrived in chains in crowded, sweltering cargo holds.