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Since the establishment of the first juvenile court in Cook County, Illinois in 1899, states have recognized that children who commit crimes are different from adults; as a class, they are less blameworthy, and they have a greater capacity for change.By the mid 1920s, every state in the country had established a separate system of criminal justice designed to acknowledge those differences called the juvenile justice system.
The lack of formal process and constitutional due process in the juvenile justice system – and potential for substantial deprivations of children’s liberty through extensive periods of incarceration even in juvenile facilities — came to light in the landmark 1967 U. In 1971, the Supreme Court ruled that youth were not entitled to jury trials in juvenile court, but several states have judicially or legislatively elected to provide youth a right to jury trial.
Following this shift to ensure process in juvenile court proceedings, an increase in juvenile crime rates in the late 1980s and early 1990s prompted legislators to adopt “tough on crime” policies, depriving certain youth of the juvenile justice system’s protections.
This creates barriers to obtaining employment, serving in the military, or enrolling in higher education programs.
In recent years, research by the Mac Arthur Foundation Research Network on Adolescent Development and Juvenile Justice led many states and courts to view juvenile crime — and juvenile justice — through a scientific lens.
The growing body of work on the CYPM highlights its strengths and effectiveness in improving outcomes for youth involved in the child welfare and juvenile justice systems.
“The Protective Potential of Prosocial Activities: A Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Child-Serving Agencies” is the latest addition to the CYPM in Brief series.CJJR sponsors papers developed from a cross systems perspective on cutting edge issues in the fields of juvenile justice, child welfare and related systems of care.Past papers have focused on crossover youth, racial and ethnic disproportionality, and improving educational outcomes, among other topics.A crucial component of this work is to create true partnerships with youth and young adults who have systems experience.Through meaningful collaboration, HCYC and its youth partners help shift the trajectory of their lives in a positive way and influence broader systems change.With few exceptions, in most states delinquency is defined as the commission of a criminal act by a child who was under the age of 18 at the time; most states also allow youth to remain under the supervision of the juvenile court until age 21.In lieu of prison, juvenile court judges draw from a range of legal options to meet both the safety needs of the public and the treatment needs of the youth, although youth may be confined in juvenile correctional facilities that too often resemble adult prisons and jails, routinely imposing correctional practices such as solitary confinement, strip searches, and the use of chemical or mechanical restraints.This Report highlights the challenges and successes of HCYC’s effort and provides jurisdictions in pursuit of real youth partnership lessons to build upon.“Research Supports Model’s Effectiveness in Improving Outcomes for Youth” is the latest publication in the CYPM in Brief series.Authored by Hannah Mc Kinney, the brief provides an overview of recent studies that have evaluated the CYPM and the promising results found therein.CJJR is proud to announce the release of its latest CYPM Spotlight Report, featuring the Harris County Youth Collective’s youth partnership initiative.Through support from the Houston Endowment, CJJR has partnered with the Harris County Youth Collective (HCYC) to support their Dual Status Youth Initiative.