# Internal Resistance Coursework

At each stage they can connect the circuit, take readings quickly and then disconnect the power supply.If you use a mains power supply, use one that is designed to limit the output current to about 1 amp, and preferably with a current overload indicator.

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Students use their existing knowledge of resistors combining in parallel, and of internal resistance, to explain its operation.

Apparatus and Materials It is often up to a teacher and a particular class to decide what equipment to use to introduce electric circuits.

If short lengths of wire are used with relatively high currents and voltages, then significant electrical heating may also occur.

Students should be encouraged to adjust the voltage to keep currents small with every set of readings.

(i) What approximately is the current through the cable when the heater is switched on?

## Internal Resistance Coursework

(ii) If the diameter of the copper core used is 1.78 mm, use the graph to determine the resistance of the connecting cable needed to carry the current. b) When a voltmeter is connected in parallel with the 15 kΩ resistor, the current in the microammeter increases to 250 μA. b) An isolated conducting sphere of radius 1.00 cm is supported by a fine insulating thread and charged to a high potential, V, relative to Earth with an electrostatic device. c) A 22n F capacitor is connected in parallel with a high resistance voltmeter as shown above. The small conducting sphere, already charged, is brought into contact with the point P. Calculate: (i) the charge transferred to the 22n F capacitor (ii) the initial potential, V, of the small conducting sphere ( has its usual value). A thundercloud has a horizontal lower surface area of 2 km V above the earth.They learn that the resistance between two points depends on the shape and resistivity of the material(s) with which they are in electrical contact.Apparatus and Materials Demonstration This activity models a railway track-circuit signalling system.Train wheels and axles provide an electrical connection between the two rails on which they travel.This enables a track signalling circuit to detect the presence of a train on a given section of track.There are two general types of equipment used in schools for experimenting with electric circuits: Give students simple instructions on how to use the kit.As work progresses, make simple testing devices available, to test whether a cell is flat, a lamp is broken, or a lead not providing a good connection.These are easy to assemble with the item to be tested being the missing component in a simple series circuit consisting of lamp, cell and connecting wires.Learning how to trouble-shoot a circuit probably teaches more than circuits which give the predicted result the first time.d) Show, by calculation, how all three resistors could be connected to produce an effective resistance of 28 kΩ. The graph below shows the results of an experiment designed to investigate how the resistance per unit length, (R/l), of different gauges of copper wire varies with diameter, d, of the wire.e) Determine how the engineer could connect these resistors to a 6V battery with negligible internal resistance so that the current taken from the battery is 1.27 m A. Four resistors are connected as shown: Between which two points is the resistance a maximum? 1/d) a) (i) Write down a relationship connecting (R/l) with diameter, d, of the wire. b) A copper cable that is 10 m long is used to supply power to a 3 k W immersion heater operating from a 240 V mains supply.

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