How To Write The Introduction Of A Research Paper

This section provides guidelines on how to construct a solid introduction to a scientific paper including background information, study question, biological rationale, hypothesis, and general approach. This observation of the natural world may inspire you to investigate background literature or your observation could be based on previous research by others or your own pilot study.If the Introduction is done well, there should be no question in the reader’s mind why and on what basis you have posed a specific hypothesis.: based on an initial observation (e.g., “I see a lot of guppies close to the shore. Broad questions are not always included in your written text, but are essential for establishing the direction of your research.: key issues, concepts, terminology, and definitions needed to understand the biological rationale for the experiment.

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Performing an investigation just for the sake of adding to our scientific knowledge (“pure or basic science”) is just as important as applied science.

In fact, basic science often provides the foundation for applied studies.: specific prediction(s) that you will test during your experiment.

Concisely summarized background information leads to the identification of specific scientific knowledge gaps that still exist.

(e.g., “No studies to date have examined whether guppies do indeed spend more time in shallow water.”): these questions are much more focused than the initial broad question, are specific to the knowledge gap identified, and can be addressed with data.

Rationale· Rationale is missing; how is this study related to what we know about D.

magna survivorship and reproduction as related to water temperature, and how will this experiment contribute to our knowledge of the system?

gives the reader a general sense of the experiment, the type of data it will yield, and the kind of conclusions you expect to obtain from the data.

Do not confuse the experimental approach with the experimental protocol.

· Think about the ecosystem in which this organism lives and the context. magna be in a body of water with elevated temperatures? are small zooplankton found in freshwater inland lakes and are thought to switch their mode of reproduction from asexual to sexual in response to extreme temperatures (Mitchell 1999).

Hypothesis· Not falsifiable; variables need to be better defined (state temperatures or range tested rather than “warm” or “cold”) and predict direction and magnitude of change in number of males after 10 days.· It is unclear what comparison will be made or what the control is· What dependent variable will be measured to determine “switch” in mode of reproduction (what criteria are definitive for switch? Lakes containing have an average summer surface temperature of 20°C (Harper 1995) but may increase by more than 15% when expose to warm water effluent from power plants, paper mills, and chemical industry (Baker et al. (background info) Could an increase in lake temperature caused by industrial thermal pollution affect the survivorship and reproduction of may be queued to reproduce sexually resulting in the production of male offspring and females carrying haploid eggs in sacs called ephippia (definition) (Mitchell 1999).


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