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As suggested in the brief history above, experimentation figured prominently in the rise of molecular biology (see the entry on experiment in biology).X-ray crystallography allowed molecular biologists to investigate the structure of macromolecules (see Celebrating Crystallography in Other Internet Resources).2007; Rheinberger 1997; Sapp 1992; Sarkar 1996a; Stegenga 2011; van Holde and Zlatanova 2018; Witkowski 2005; Zallen 1996.
In contrast to Schroedinger, Bohr (and subsequently Delbrueck) did not seek to reduce biology to physics; instead, the goal was to understand how each discipline complemented the other (Delbrueck 1949; Sloan and Fogel 2011).
But despite the power of mutagenesis, Muller recognized that, as a geneticist, he was limited in the extent to which he could explicate the more fundamental properties of genes and their actions.
He concluded a 1936 essay: , the physicist Erwin Schroedinger (1944) proposed ways in which the principles of quantum physics might account for the stability, yet mutability, of the gene (see the entry on life) (Elitzur 1995; Moore 1989; Olby 1994; Sarkar 1991; for a reinterpretation see Kay 2000).
Watson and Crick’s second paper of 1953, which discussed the genetical implications of their recently discovered (Watson and Crick 1953a) double-helical structure of DNA, used both “code” and “information”: .
In more detail, the transfer of information from nucleic acid to nucleic acid, or from nucleic acid to protein may be possible, but transfer from protein to protein, or from protein to nucleic acid is impossible.