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Over the course of the green revolution small-scale farmers, in particular rural small-scale farmers have acquired most of the stresses and burdens of the revolution and have been most affected by the negative consequences.
But, before this can be achieved, a few key things must first be defined.
The terms “rural” and “small-scale” will often be used in this article and should be explained.
This is due to their lack of money but also to the ever increasing rates of food.
“High consumer prices are a cost of living increase that hits all who must buy food for cash. In India, for example, lower income groups often pay more than the rich for the cereal foods that make up so much of their diet (Cleaver, 183).” It is the lower classes, the small-scale farmers, who pay.
Growing numbers of the unemployed undoubtedly will leave the countryside and join the migration to the cities—swelling the urban slums (Cleaver, 182).” In the urban areas, particularly the slums, unemployment is already a serious issue.
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Now factor in the thousands of farmers migrating into these areas and the unemployment rate is now unimaginable.“Small-scale” refers to the amount and size of the land that the farmers own.Most commonly, small-scale farms are those that contain 7 acres or less of land (Bhattacharya, A147).Costs like fertilizers, irrigation systems, mechanical equipment and external labor produced negative consequences for rural small-scale farmers.The Green Revolution brought around much technological advancement for farmers.It is also the inability of the major organizations involved in the Green Revolution to spread the proper implementation of these new practices to the rural populations that has caused the lag of the small-scale farmers.In Cohen’s study, “Effects of Green Revolution Strategies on Tenants and Small-scale Landowners in the Chilalo Region of Ethiopia,” he determines that such “strategies” or new technologies fail to reach and have “unexpected consequences” for the rural populations.When it comes to agriculture and farming the government is often the one who controls the pricing of the goods and also produces policies to better the life of the farmers.In many regions where the Green Revolution practices were implemented, the government sided with the large-scale farmers and further impaired the growth of the small-scale farmer class.Thus, “small-scale farmers” are those who own farms of 7 acres or less.“Rural” refers to the actual area in which these farms are placed.