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Many of these involve GM crops and whether food produced from them is safe and what impact growing them will have on the environment.
The first genetically modified animal to be commercialized was the Glo Fish (2003) and the first genetically modified animal to be approved for food use was the Aqu Advantage salmon in 2015.
Bacteria are the easiest organisms to engineer and have been used for research, food production, industrial protein purification (including drugs), agriculture, and art.
Although there is a scientific consensus that currently available food derived from GM crops poses no greater risk to human health than conventional food, GM food safety is a leading issue with critics.
Gene flow, impact on non-target organisms and escape are the major environmental concerns.
Golden rice has been engineered with three genes that increase its nutritional value.
Other prospects for GM crops are as bioreactors for the production of biopharmaceuticals, biofuels or medicines.Countries have adopted regulatory measures to deal with these concerns.There are differences in the regulation for the release of GMOs between countries, with some of the most marked differences occurring between the US and Europe.There are proposals to remove the virulent genes from viruses to create vaccines.Plants have been engineered for scientific research, to create new colors in plants, deliver vaccines and to create enhanced crops.A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques.The exact definition of a genetically modified organism and what constitutes genetic engineering varies, with the most common being an organism altered in a way that "does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination".Although human gene therapy is still relatively new, it has been used to treat genetic disorders such as severe combined immunodeficiency, and Leber's congenital amaurosis.Many objections have been raised over the development of GMO's, particularly their commercialization.The first genetically modified animal, a mouse, was created in 1974 by Rudolf Jaenisch, and the first plant was produced in 1983.In 1994 the Flavr Savr tomato was released, the first commercialized genetically modified food.