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The term problem solving means slightly different things depending on the discipline.For instance, it is a mental process in psychology and a computerized process in computer science.
In these disciplines, problem solving is part of a larger process that encompasses problem determination, de-duplication, analysis, diagnosis, repair, and other steps.
Other problem solving tools are linear and nonlinear programming, queuing systems, and simulation.
Studies conclude people's strategies cohere with their goals and stem from the natural process of comparing oneself with others.
The early experimental work of the Gestaltists in Germany placed the beginning of problem solving study (e.g., Karl Duncker in 1935 with his book The psychology of productive thinking The use of simple, novel tasks was due to the clearly defined optimal solutions and short time for solving, which made it possible for the researchers to trace participants' steps in problem-solving process.
Problem solving in psychology refers to the process of finding solutions to problems encountered in life.
Solutions to these problems are usually situation- or context-specific.Researchers' underlying assumption was that simple tasks such as the Tower of Hanoi correspond to the main properties of "real world" problems and thus the characteristic cognitive processes within participants' attempts to solve simple problems are the same for "real world" problems too; simple problems were used for reasons of convenience and with the expectation that thought generalizations to more complex problems would become possible.Perhaps the best-known and most impressive example of this line of research is the work by Allen Newell and Herbert A. In computer science and in the part of artificial intelligence that deals with algorithms ("algorithmics"), problem solving includes techniques of algorithms, heuristics and root cause analysis.Finally a solution is selected to be implemented and verified.Problems have a goal to be reached and how you get there depends upon problem orientation (problem-solving coping style and skills) and systematic analysis.It can also be applied to a product or process prior to an actual failure event—when a potential problem can be predicted and analyzed, and mitigation applied so the problem never occurs.Techniques such as failure mode and effects analysis can be used to proactively reduce the likelihood of problems occurring.There are two different types of problems, ill-defined and well-defined: different approaches are used for each.Well-defined problems have specific goals and clear expected solutions, while ill-defined problems do not.Well-defined problems allow for more initial planning than ill-defined problems.Solving problems sometimes involves dealing with pragmatics, the way that context contributes to meaning, and semantics, the interpretation of the problem.