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The amount that you turned the knob is the independent variable, the variable that the researcher controls, and the amount of sound that resulted from turning it is the dependent variable, the change that is caused by the independent variable.Experimental research also looks into the effects of removing something.An experimenter who wants to show that adding a certain fertilizer will help a plant grow better must ensure that it is the fertilizer, and nothing else, affecting the growth patterns of the plant.
As such, researchers often have an idea, or hypothesis, about what effect will occur when they cause something.
Few experiments are performed where there is no idea of what will happen.
In abstract terms, this means the relationship between a certain action, X, which alone creates the effect Y.
For example, turning the volume knob on your stereo clockwise causes the sound to get louder.
In this example, even though the designers of the experiment have tried to remove all extraneous variables, results may appear merely coincidental.
Essay Quasi-Experimental Design
Since the goal of the experiment is to prove a causal relationship in which a single variable is responsible for the effect produced, the experiment would produce stronger proof if the results were replicated in larger treatment and control groups.From past experiences in life or from the knowledge we possess in our specific field of study, we know how some actions cause other reactions. Experimentation becomes more complex when the causal relationships they seek aren't as clear as in the stereo knob-turning examples. " or "Will this new fertilizer help this plant grow better? For example, any number of things could affect the growth rate of a plant-the temperature, how much water or sun it receives, or how much carbon dioxide is in the air.These variables can affect an experiment's results.Thus far, we have explained that for experimental research we need: But what if we don't have all of those? Not a true experiment in the strictest scientific sense of the term, but we can have a quasi-experiment, an attempt to uncover a causal relationship, even though the researcher cannot control all the factors that might affect the outcome.A quasi-experimenter treats a given situation as an experiment even though it is not wholly by design.The term treatment refers to either removing or adding a stimulus in order to measure an effect (such as turning the knob a little or a lot, or reducing the noise level a little or a lot).Experimental researchers want to know how varying levels of treatment will affect what they are studying.Differences between groups will average out and become more comparable.The principle of normal distribution states that in a population most individuals will fall within the middle range of values for a given characteristic, with increasingly fewer toward either extreme (graphically represented as the ubiquitous "bell curve").Beyond discovering causal relationships, experimental research further seeks out effect; in technical terms, how the independent variable will affect the dependent variable.You know that turning the knob clockwise will produce a louder noise, but by varying how much you turn it, you see how much sound is produced.