Essay On History Of Kashmir

The administrative capitals are The vast majority of the state’s territory is mountainous, and the physiography is divided into seven zones that are closely associated with the structural components of the western Himalayas.From southwest to northeast those zones consist of the plains, the foothills, the Pir Panjal Range, the Vale of Kashmir, the Great Himalayas zone, the upper Indus River valley, and the Karakoram Range.The range, which is still heavily glaciated, rises starkly from dry desolate plateaus that are characterized by extremes of temperature and shattered rock debris.

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During Pleistocene times it was occupied at times by a body of water known as Lake Karewa; it is now filled by lacustrine (still water) sediments as well as alluvium deposited by the upper Jhelum River. The climate is characterized by annual precipitation of about 30 inches (750 mm), derived partially from the summer monsoon and partially from storms associated with winter low-pressure systems. Temperatures vary considerably by elevation; at Srinagar the average minimum temperature is in the upper 20s F (about −2 °C) in January, and the average maximum is in the upper 80s F (about 31 °C) in July.

Up to about 7,000 feet (2,100 metres), woodlands of deodar cedar, blue pine, walnut, willow, elm, and poplar occur.

Precipitation increases with elevation, and the lower scrubland gives way to pine forests higher up.

The Pir Panjal Range constitutes the first (southernmost) mountain rampart associated with the Himalayas in the state and is the westernmost of the Lesser Himalayas.

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The climate varies from alpine in the northeast to subtropical in the southwest.

In the alpine area, average annual precipitation is about 3 inches (75 mm), but in the subtropical zone (around Jammu) rainfall amounts to about 45 inches (1,150 mm) per year.

It has an average crest line of 12,500 feet (3,800 metres), with individual peaks rising to some 15,000 feet (4,600 metres).

Consisting of an ancient rock core of granites, gneisses, quartz rocks, and slates, it has been subject to considerable uplift and fracturing and was heavily glaciated during the Pleistocene Epoch.

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