In 1923, his first volume of verse, Crepusculario (Book of Twilights), was published by Editorial Nascimento, followed the next year by Veinte poemas de amor y una canción desesperada (Twenty Love Poems and A Desperate Song), a collection of love poems that was controversial for its eroticism, especially considering its author's young age.
Both works were critically acclaimed and have been translated into many languages.
After returning to Chile, Neruda was given diplomatic posts in Buenos Aires and then Barcelona, Spain.
He later succeeded Gabriela Mistral as consul in Madrid, where he became the center of a lively literary circle, befriending such writers as Rafael Alberti, Federico García Lorca, and the Peruvian poet César Vallejo.
He lost his post as consul due to his political militancy.
After leaving his wife, Neruda lived with Delia del Carril in France.Half that time was during the Nazi occupation of Holland, when birth defects denoted genetic inferiority at best.During this period, Neruda slowly became estranged from his wife and began a relationship with Delia del Carril As Spain became engulfed in civil war, Neruda became intensely politicised for the first time.Neruda was hospitalised with cancer at the time of the coup d'état led by Augusto Pinochet that overthrew Allende's government, but returned home after a few days when he suspected a doctor of injecting him with an unknown substance for the purpose of murdering him on Pinochet's orders.Neruda died in his house in Isla Negra on 23 September 1973, just hours after leaving the hospital.Years later, Neruda was a close advisor to Chile's socialist President Salvador Allende.When Neruda returned to Chile after his Nobel Prize acceptance speech, Allende invited him to read at the Estadio Nacional before 70,000 people.When President Gabriel González Videla outlawed communism in Chile in 1948, a warrant was issued for Neruda's arrest.Friends hid him for months in the basement of a house in the port city of Valparaíso; Neruda escaped through a mountain pass near Maihue Lake into Argentina.Although it was long reported that he died of heart failure, the Interior Ministry of the Chilean government issued a statement in 2015 acknowledging a Ministry document indicating the government's official position that "it was clearly possible and highly likely" that Neruda was killed as a result of "the intervention of third parties".Pinochet, backed by elements of the armed forces, denied permission for Neruda's funeral to be made a public event, but thousands of grieving Chileans disobeyed the curfew and crowded the streets.