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For example, the route is available only to specific candidates.Usually a university will accept only its own graduates; even more commonly, it will accept only its own staff. The University of Surrey, for example, takes on only full-time members of staff; in contrast, Roehampton University is a rare case of an institution offering its doctorate by published works to most graduates (subject, of course, to other criteria).
When the committee is satisfied that all the conditions have been met, the student is recommended to undertake an oral examination, just as conventional Ph D students are subjected to a viva.
The majority of the objections to the Ph D by publication concern technical problems.
It is emphatically not an easier path than the Ph D by thesis.
As anyone who has ever submitted a paper - let alone six or seven - for publication in a peer-reviewed journal will know, producing the papers takes a great deal of determination, time and effort.
As a result, candidates hoping to complete their Ph D by publication at their alma mater might have difficulty finding a tutor.
They may be making their application several years after they completed their last degree.
The supervisor guides the candidate in the choice of publications to be submitted, indicates whether the existing works are good enough - both in quality and quantity - to form a viable submission, and confirms that they represent a coherent theme.
Once the submission has been put together, the candidate is invited to present it to an academic committee.
The time period between starting the research and seeing the finished product in print can be lengthy, and it takes a good deal of stamina to see the process through to completion.
In a sense, though, this is also the main argument for Ph Ds by publication.