This system has been criticized for tokenism because it allows the party leaders to overrule seat holders’ dissenting opinions.An affirmative-action system was created for the civil service, but the government has recently sought to roll it back.Federal governance was seen not only as a way to ensure greater local accountability for office holders, but also as way to give ethnic minorities control over government in local constituencies where they formed a majority of the population.
It created seven new provinces and several hundred local government constituencies.
However, most of the provinces were delineated based on geographical rather than ethnic boundaries.
Today, 11 years on, certain promises of the new republic have been fulfilled.
But others, like the construction of the Republic Memorial itself, remain incomplete.
Many question whether central-level officials are genuinely committed to federalism.
Secularism, another hallmark of the new republic, has also had mixed results.
Federalism and Secularism During their insurgency, the Maoists pushed for the creation of a federal state structure to decentralize power from Kathmandu.
Later, in 2007-08, Madhesis – a historically marginalized group from the southern Terai region – also led protests in favor of federalism.
Because it failed to draft a new constitution in the allotted timeframe, a second Constituent Assembly was elected in 2013, this time with a record-breaking 78 percent turnout.
After this Constituent Assembly promulgated a new constitution in 2015 that reaffirmed secularism and federalism, elections were held in 2017 for central, provincial, and local offices under the new federal structure.