2007) and philosophical (Ennis 1962, Facione 1990) perspectives.Many of these general overviews are textbooks (Facione 2011b; Halpern 2003; Nisbett 1993; Sternberg, et al.Many among the public have not yet learned that what makes science special is that evidence has to meet certain standards.
The sources highlighted here include textbooks, literature reviews, and meta-analyses related to critical thinking.
These contributions come from both psychological (Halpern 2003; Nisbett 1993; Sternberg, et al.
Those interested in a more recent conceptualization of critical thinking are referred to Facione 2011a, which is a short introduction to the field of critical thinking that would be appropriate for those new to the field, or Facione 1990, which summarizes a collaborative definition of critical thinking among philosophers using the Delphi method.
Facione 2011b would be a valuable resource for philosophers teaching critical thinking or logic courses to general audiences.
For every useful documentary about a psychology-related topic, there are hundreds pseudo-documentaries about conspiracies, UFOs, hidden planets threatening the earth, and much more.
Students need critical thinking to separate the wheat from the chaff (separate what is valuable from what is useless). William James wrote in 1876 that "philosophic study means the habit of always seeing an alternative" (James, 1876/1978). What are recurrent themes in discussions of "critical thinking"? At the end of the day, after staying open-minded and generating new ideas, one is left with the problem of This is the specialty of science: gathering and evaluating evidence. When the National Science Foundation in the United States surveyed public attitudes and knowledge about science, they found that 70% of American adults said they were "interested" in science.
Nisbett 1993 tackles the question of whether critical thinking skills can be taught and provides ample empirical evidence to that end. 2007 is a good resource for psychology students interested in learning how to improve their scientific reasoning skills, a specific set of thinking skills needed by psychology and other science students.
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Critical thinkers are flexible, open-minded, persistent, and willing to exert mental energy working on tough problems.
Unlike poor thinkers, critical thinkers are willing to admit they have made an error in judgment if confronted with contradictory evidence, and they operate on autopilot much less than poor thinkers (see Critical Thinking Dispositions).