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Gas exchanges are measured by arterial blood gas, carbon monoxide diffusion capacity and 131xenon scan.In majority of lung diseases (both obstructive and restrictive) ventilation is predominantly affected.
Earlier, spirometers were of either rolling model or bellows type but the recent ones are electronic and fully automated using digital turbine and flow sensors that require no calibration.
Though spirometry does not measure the individual lung volumes, it measures the forced vital capacity (FVC), which is a combination of tidal volume (TV) expiratory reserve volume (ERV) and inspiratory reserve volume (IRV).
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Each case presents patient history, test results and some vital signs.
This could be due to several factors like environmental pollution, passive smoking, modernization, increased awareness and early diagnosis of these conditions.