Criterion Essay

Now Criterion has revealed the title for spine #1000 — and it’s a (1975) — presented with HD digital transfers.

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While numerous articles on Criterion® have been published and its validity evidence has accumulated, test users need to obtain relevant validity evidence for their local context and develop their own validity argument.

This paper aims to provide validity evidence for the interpretation and use of Criterion® for assessing second language (L2) writing proficiency at a university in Japan.

We investigate this from three perspectives: (a) differences in Criterion® holistic scores due to prompts (prompt difficulty), (b) relationships between Criterion® holistic scores and indicators of L2 proficiency, and (c) longitudinal changes in Criterion® holistic and writing quality scores.

These areas are related to three types of inferences and are crucial in our context.

Second, all the previous research has used repeated ) did not consider a nested structure of their data in which students belong to different classes.

Data are nested when data at lower levels are situated within data at higher levels.She reported significant increase of the number of words they wrote and improvement in overall organization., have provided valuable insights into the capability of Criterion® in detecting changes in writing. First, all previous studies had only two time points to collect data.It is preferable to measure writing three or more times, which would enable us to examine clearer patterns of score change over time and obtain stronger evidence to argue for the utility of Criterion® as a sensitive measurement tool for detecting long-term changes in L2 writing proficiency.Furthermore, other L2 writing studies such as Nagahashi () demonstrated that the difficulty of different prompts vary, which necessitates more investigation on this topic.Relationships between Criterion® scores and indicators of L2 proficiency have also been examined.Although previous studies have accumulated multiple pieces of validity evidence for the interpretation and use of Criterion®, validity evidence for local users is essential to interpret and use test scores in a meaningful way.We intend to provide such evidence in the context of assessing writing proficiency at a university in Japan.).Along with the increasingly wider applications of Criterion®, numerous studies have been conducted from various perspectives, which is well summarized in Enright and Quinlan () emphasized the importance of developing one’s own localized validity argument considering one’s test purposes and uses.For this aim, we examine the validity of the interpretation and use for assessing second language (L2) writing proficiency at a university in Japan, when the interpretation and use are made based on scores derived from Criterion®.For example, Ohta (-tests showed that Criterion® holistic scores and the number of words in the essays increased among students with TOEFL Institutional Testing Program (ITP®) scores of 500 or above, but that they did not increase among students with those of below 486.Ohta () used the same data as in 2008a study and analyzed the essays written by 25 students who submitted all the assignments from the viewpoint of vocabulary, accuracy, and organization.


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