This group, however, was still very much marked by their modernism, with the movement staunchly supported by Greenberg as a high art toward which all art had been inexorably moving since the 19 century.
Meanwhile, outside this high art enclave, America in the 1950s was experiencing a consumerist and cultural boom as well as a stormy political climate.
Armstrong's network art projects include PING (2003), (2005), Why Some Dolls Are Bad (2007), and Path (2008).
In 2008 Armstrong commissioned and curated Tributaries and Text-Fed Streams, a work by J. Carpenter, which investigated the formal properties of RSS syndication as a literary form.
A new approach to popular culture and the mass media emerged in the 1950s, sparking a wave of art movements that reintroduced representation from disparate sources and experimented with image, spectacle, aesthetic codes, disciplinary boundaries, originality, and viewer involvement in ways that challenged previous definitions of art.
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"High culture" is a term used to describe traditional fine arts, such as painting and sculpture.
The postmodernists, in response, embraced the "popular" wholeheartedly and made it central to their work.
Pop artists recreated the mundane objects of consumerism, but used humor and irony to transform these into gigantic soft forms (Claes Oldenburg) or into cultural icons (Andy Warhol) while the Minimalists used industrial materials to create repetitive forms reminiscent of the industrial production line.
By the time the Abstract Expressionists were painting (not yet fancy) in New York lofts in the 1940s, representation had been entirely eliminated in favor of a direct gestural expression that focused on paint application rather than narrative.
Fundamental to the modernist avant-garde artist was individuality, autonomy, and the tendency for radical experimentation in search of an ultimate truth or meaning.