Crediting Quotes In An Essay

Crediting Quotes In An Essay-46
Paraphrasing is often defined as putting a passage from an author into “your own words.” But what are your own words?How different must your paraphrase be from the original?

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When using sources in your papers, you can avoid plagiarism by knowing what must be documented.

If you use an author’s specific word or words, you must place those words within quotation marks and you must credit the source.

The paragraphs below provide an example by showing a passage as it appears in the source, two paraphrases that follow the source too closely, and a legitimate paraphrase.

The student’s intention was to incorporate the material in the original passage into a section of a paper on the concept of “experts” that compared the functions of experts and nonexperts in several professions.

You do not need to cite a source for material considered common knowledge: General common knowledge is factual information considered to be in the public domain, such as birth and death dates of well-known figures, and generally accepted dates of military, political, literary, and other historical events.

In general, factual information contained in multiple standard reference works can usually be considered to be in the public domain.The clinical nurse specialist in this unit is mostly involved with formal teaching in orienting new staff. The experts — the nurse manager, nurse clinician, and clinical nurse specialist — are not involved directly in patient care.The nurse manager, nurse clinician, and clinical nurse specialist are the designated experts. The resource nurse is seen as both a caregiver and a resource to other caregivers. The staff nurses, in contrast, This paraphrase is a patchwork composed of pieces in the original author’s language (in red) and pieces in the student-writer’s words, all rearranged into a new pattern, but with none of the borrowed pieces in quotation marks.This person oversees the hour-by-hour functioning of the unit as a whole, such as considering expected admissions and discharges of patients, ascertaining that beds are available for patients in the operating room, and covering sick calls. They are the most experienced of all the staff nurses. And if quotation marks did appear around all these phrases, this paragraph would be so cluttered that it would be unreadable.The nurse clinician has a separate job description and provides for quality of care by orienting new staff, developing unit policies, and providing direct support where needed, such as assisting in emergency situations. at the top and the least senior staff nurses at the bottom.Notice too that the writer has modified Chase’s language and structure and has added material to fit the new context and purpose — to present the distinctive functions of experts and nonexperts in several professions.Perhaps you’ve noticed that a number of phrases from the original passage appear in the legitimate paraphrase: critical care, staff nurses, nurse manager, clinical nurse specialist, nurse clinician, resource nurse.The method below is not only a way to create a paraphrase but also a way to understand a difficult text.Consider the following passage from Love and Toil (a book on motherhood in London from 1870 to 1918), in which the author, Ellen Ross, puts forth one of her major arguments: You may need to go through this process several times to create a satisfactory paraphrase.Ideas: An author’s ideas may include not only points made and conclusions drawn, but, for instance, a specific method or theory, the arrangement of material, or a list of steps in a process or characteristics of a medical condition.If a source provided any of these, you need to acknowledge the source.

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