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Moreover, the belief that global redistributive justice would be served by a global freedom of movement has actually normalize forced migration—instead of addressing critical push factors in that process (such as poverty, civil war, and effects of climate change). In doing so, I provide a critical evaluation of two main common assumptions.This leads to the third limitation of these current debates: neither restrictionist nor liberal perspectives adequately address the core relationship between immigration and democracy. They remain vague about immigration (what kind of immigration? ) and unclear about the aspects of democracy actually involved (access to citizenship and voting rights? The first relates to the belief that immigration, like other “dark forces” of globalization, poses a threat to the traditional Westphalian state.
Such a belief is used to legitimize “extraordinary measures” such as the reestablishment of border controls within the Schengen area in the aftermath of the 2015 refugee crisis; the erection of fences in Central and Eastern Europe; the violation of the Dublin regulation in Europe and of the Geneva Convention elsewhere; and the stationing of military troops at the US-Mexican border.
Consistent with those scholars “bringing the state back in,” I argue that immigration policy remains one of the few bastions of state sovereignty.
From the standpoint of time, then, it follows that calls to “build the wall” should also be heard as temporal desires expressed in spatial terms.
On the left, pro-immigration advocates frequently, and uncritically, valorize the indispensability of immigrant labor.
Yet, how should people born in their country of residence be defined when they do not have access to citizenship?
Or how should nationals who are perceived as immigrants on the basis on their foreign origin be defined when they are citizens?
Immigrants reputedly threaten national identity and societal cohesion, especially the newcomers whose perceived distinctiveness challenges the assimilative capacity of their host societies.
These claims fuel populist movements, nativist agendas, and anti-migrant sentiments.
From their perspective, immigrants pose a socioeconomic and an ethno-cultural threat to Western societies.
They are perceived as stealing native workers’ jobs, reducing their wages, and vastly consuming social benefits.