# Connect Four Thesis

The third tier of the tree represents all the possible moves that can be made by the second player.A small subset of the tree (for a small game board) might look like this: Imagine expanding the tree all the way down to the bottom, where the leaf nodes are "terminal" states -- states where one player has won the game, or there is a draw.

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So, while the the perfect tree formula would tell us that there are boards, some smart mathematicians have figured out that there are "only" around 4 trillion different boards. Thankfully, we can use a technique called alpha-beta pruning.

The idea is pretty simple: do not bother searching branches that would either: Now, this is a hand wavey oversimplification of how the process actually works.

PILON: We start seeing laws that allow for children to go to school.

And before you get too excited about some board-game renaissance, consider the sales numbers on board games versus video games. Whatever the case, the instinct to play some kind of game, with some kind of opponent, is extraordinarily common, and long-lived.

It also looks like writing this type of AI is homework for AI classes at Cornell, Northeastern, and Purdue.

I could only find one other Javascript Connect Four AI, which moves substantially faster than mine, but is easily defeated (which is exactly the behavior one would expect).

It'll make it slow down, but it'll get exponentially more difficult. A lot of the boards that you encounter when going down the tree are duplicates (there is more than one way to get to a state).

To avoid recomputing the desirability of these boards, we store them in a hash table.

In order to make moves, the AI applies a minimax strategy.

In other words, the AI assumes that its opponent will always play optimally, and thus tries to minimize the maximum gain of its opponent. The branching factor is approximately seven, and the depth of the tree could be as high as 42.

• ###### A Case Study in Connect Four - Semantic Scholar

Search in the domain of CONNECT FOUR. We prove. The game of CONNECT FOUR belongs to the broader. Master's thesis, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.…

• ###### How to Win Every Game Ever Created, According to the.

A Chinese scientist how to win Connect Four, etc, etc, ad infinitum. somewhere, and afterwards she said she'd been reading his thesis.…

• ###### Using Genetic Learning in Weight-Based Game AI

This Thesis is brought to you for free and open access by the Computer. The initial version of our Connect Four game would play against itself using those.…

• ###### How to Win Games and Beat People Ep. 247 - Freakonomics.

DUBNER I thought that we could begin with Connect Four. won was because she had read the master's thesis of a guy called Victor Allis.…

• ###### Connect Four is UNDERrated Connect Four BoardGameGeek

Anyways, here's where my little thesis comes in. Connect four is an abstract strategy game but really, most good games are just abstract.…

• ###### A JavaScript Connect Four AI Ryan Marcus

Might I interest you in a rousing game of Connect Four. not create the best Connect Four AI possible in fact, Victor Allis' thesis shows how to.…

• ###### Connect Four - Keith Pomakis

In October of 1992 I wrote a Connect-4 algorithm in LISP for an artificial intelligence. the number of pieces necessary to connect in a row in order to win it doesn't have to be 4. A masters thesis on Connect-Four, by Victor Allis PDF file.…

• ###### Reference request - Has connect 4 in 3D been studied in CS.

I couldn't find anything on that particular game, but I found an analysis of a similar game called qubic in Victor Allis' PhD thesis chapter 4.…