In the absence of pre-existing humoral immunity RV infection will cause an induction in innate immune response with the appearence of type 1 interferon (20). A comparison of the effect of honey, dextrometorphan, and no treatment on nocturnal cough and sleep quality for coughing children and their parents. BTS guidelines: Recomendations for the assessment and management of cough in children. Consistent with the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) results, epithelial eosinophils and neutrophil counts are increased in subjects with asthma when compared with normal subjects during acute RV infection (21). The prevalance of drug use in children is still as high as P in viral infections.
Substantial titers of respiratory viruses are pesent in innate surfaces and also survive up to several days (12,13).
The host epithelial barriers and both innate and adaptive immune responses influence the reaction of the host (14).
RSVand influenza viruses are most commonly seen starting from december to april.
Adenovirus infections are continuously present at a low rate throughout the cold season.
Infections with other respiratory pathogens, for instance concomitant infection of rhinoviruses and Streptococcus Pneumoniae (Strept.) show increased adherence of Strept. After the influx of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) in the nasal submucosa and epithelium, inflammatory cytokines are released and infiltration occur in the medium.
Increased vascular leakage reflect the ability of viral pathogens ability to distrupt tight junctions (19). Shields MD, Bush A, Everard ML, Mc Kenzie S, Primhak R; British Thoracic Society Cough Guideline Group.
Croup is a clinical entity mainly caused by parainfluenza viruses. Pharyngoconjunctival fever is the caused by adenoviruses.
The common cold may accur at any time of the year, but there is typically a high prevalence during the early fall and lasts until late spring.
Many of these viruses may also cause other characteristic syndromes in children.
RSV is mainly responsible for bronchiolitis in children younger than age of two years.