Cloning Of Insulin Essay

Cloning Of Insulin Essay-24
In some cases, recombinant DNA can have deleterious effects even if it is not expressed.One mechanism by which this happens is insertional inactivation, in which the r DNA becomes inserted into a host cell's gene.That is, their appearance, behavior and metabolism are usually unchanged, and the only way to demonstrate the presence of recombinant sequences is to examine the DNA itself, typically using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test.

In some cases, recombinant DNA can have deleterious effects even if it is not expressed.One mechanism by which this happens is insertional inactivation, in which the r DNA becomes inserted into a host cell's gene.That is, their appearance, behavior and metabolism are usually unchanged, and the only way to demonstrate the presence of recombinant sequences is to examine the DNA itself, typically using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test.

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In standard cloning protocols, the cloning of any DNA fragment essentially involves seven steps: (1) Choice of host organism and cloning vector, (2) Preparation of vector DNA, (3) Preparation of DNA to be cloned, (4) Creation of recombinant DNA, (5) Introduction of recombinant DNA into the host organism, (6) Selection of organisms containing recombinant DNA, and (7) Screening for clones with desired DNA inserts and biological properties.

Following transplantation into the host organism, the foreign DNA contained within the recombinant DNA construct may or may not be expressed.

Because of this, DNA cloning is also called recombinant DNA technology.

DNA cloning is used to create a large number of copies of a gene or other piece of DNA.

promoter, translational initiation signal, and transcriptional terminator).

Specific changes to the host organism may be made to improve expression of the ectopic gene.

Recombinant DNA (r DNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.

Recombinant DNA is the general name for a piece of DNA that has been created by combining at least two strands.

If the r DNA sequences encode a gene that is expressed, then the presence of RNA and/or protein products of the recombinant gene can be detected, typically using RT-PCR or western hybridization methods.

Additional phenotypes that are encountered include toxicity to the host organism induced by the recombinant gene product, especially if it is over-expressed or expressed within inappropriate cells or tissues.

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