The purpose of the last essay is to examine the long and short-run causality of the share of renewable sources on the environmental relation CO2 per KWh electricity generation- real GDP for 20 European countries over the 2001-2010 periods.
In the first essay, we used the 'complete decomposition' technique to examine CO2 emissions intensity and its components, considering 36 economic sectors and the 1996-2009 periods in Portugal.
The industry (in particular 5 industrial sectors) is contributing largely to the effects of variation of CO2 emissions intensity.
It is shown that the use of Nitrogen per cultivated area is an important factor of emissions and in those countries where labour productivity increases (the inverse of average labour productivity in agriculture decreases), emissions intensity tends to decrease.
These results imply that the way to reduce emissions in agriculture would be to provide better training of agricultural workers to increase their productivity, which would lead to a less need for energy and use of Nitrogen.
The study of these relationships is important from the point of view of environmental and energy policy as it gives us information on the costs in terms of economic growth, on the application of restrictive levels of emissions and also on the effects of the policies concerning the use of renewable energy in the electricity sector (see for instance European Commission Directive 2001/77/EC, ).
For that purpose, in this study we use Cointegration Analysis on the set of cross-country panel data between CO2 emissions from electricity generation (CO2 k Wh), economic growth (GDP) and the share of renewable energy for 20 European countries.
The carbon footprint shows how much carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases a person produces in everyday life.
It measures the amount of fossil fuels and electricity someone uses up as well as the carbon footprint of the products they buy.
When we use our cars or heat our homes with oil or natural gas, carbon dioxide and various other gases are set free.
These emissions lead to a denser atmosphere and global warming.