Breast Cancer Research Paper

As in most types of adult cancer, breast cancer is thought to develop as a result of accumulated damage induced by both internal and external triggers resulting in initial carcinogenic events.

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One project was a review of data available to assess temporal changes in the potential for exposure to a selected set of chemicals and other environmental agents. During these meetings and calls, the committee reviewed and discussed the existing research literature on the topics central to its charge and developed and revised this report. At three of its meetings, the committee held public sessions during which it heard presentations by researchers, representatives of advocacy organizations, and members of the public. Komen for the Cure and its Scientific Advisory Board. Komen for the Cure funds research on prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer, and also provides educational information and support services for the public and health care providers. Although more needs to be learned about both the mechanisms by which breast cancers arise and the array of factors that influence risk for them, much has been established. Among the factors generally accepted as increasing women’s risk are older age, having a first child at an older age or never having a child, exposure to ionizing radiation, and use of certain forms of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT). Since the mid-1970s, when the National Cancer Institute (NCI) began compiling continuous cancer statistics, the annual incidence of invasive breast cancer rose from 105 cases per 100,000 women to 142 per 100,000 women in 1999 (NCI, 2011). In 2008, the incidence of breast cancer was 129 cases per 100,000 women. Further reduction of the incidence of breast cancer is a high priority, but finding ways to achieve this is a challenge. It is likely that many such procarcinogenic events may never be entirely preventable because, although potentially modifiable, they are consequences of basic biologic processes, such as oxidative damage to DNA from endogenous metabolism, or stimulation of cell growth through normal hormonal processes. The decrease in breast-cancer incidence in 2003 in the United States. Although such biological “background” mutagenesis is unavoidable, highly efficient protective pathways, such as DNA repair and immune surveillance, are effective at reducing the impacts of procarcinongenic events (Loeb and Nishimura, 2010; Bissell and Hines, 2011).

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