Thus APA-style writing minimizes literary devices such as metaphor, imagery, irony, suspense, and so on. Specifically, it promotes psychologists’ scientific values and assumptions.From this perspective, many features of APA style that at first seem arbitrary actually make good sense.
Thus APA-style writing minimizes literary devices such as metaphor, imagery, irony, suspense, and so on. Specifically, it promotes psychologists’ scientific values and assumptions.From this perspective, many features of APA style that at first seem arbitrary actually make good sense.The third level of APA style can be referred to as low-level style (which is covered in Chapter 4 “The Mechanics of Style” through Chapter 7 “Reference Examples” of the Publication Manual.) Low-level style includes all the specific guidelines pertaining to spelling, grammar, references and reference citations, numbers and statistics, figures and tables, and so on. Only the first word of a book title is capitalized (with the exceptions noted for article titles), and the entire title is italicized.
Following are several features of APA-style writing and the scientific values or assumptions they reflect.
Another important element of high-level APA style is the avoidance of language that is biased against particular groups.
It is easier to write about research when you know what information to present, the order in which to present it, and even the style in which to present it.
Likewise, it is easier to read about research when it is presented in familiar and expected ways.
Table 11.1 shows several more examples that follow these general principles.
The previous edition of the Publication Manual strongly discouraged the use of the term subjects (except for nonhumans) and strongly encouraged the use of participants instead.
The second theme of high-level APA style is that it is straightforward.
This means that it communicates ideas as simply and clearly as possible, putting the focus on the ideas themselves and not on how they are communicated. Technical terms must be used, but they are used to improve communication, not simply to make the writing sound more “scientific.” For example, if participants immersed their hands in a bucket of ice water, it is better just to write this than to write that they “were subjected to a pain-inducement apparatus.” At the same time, however, there is no better way to communicate that a between-subjects design was used than to use the term “between-subjects design.” .
The first is the overall organization of an article (which is covered in Chapter 2 “Manuscript Structure and Content” of the Publication Manual).
Empirical research reports, in particular, have several distinct sections that always appear in the same order: The second level of APA style can be referred to as high-level style (covered in Chapter 3 “Writing Clearly and Concisely” of the Publication Manual), which includes guidelines for the clear expression of ideas. One is that APA-style writing is formal rather than informal.