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That approach has been specifically illustrated in this blog already, by earlier postings about manufacturing reference entries for Twitter, Facebook, and Wikipedia. Where does this reference come from (or, Where can my reader find this reference)? On the rare occasion when no authorship is attributed and, per APA style, you revert to a title entry (e.g., , p. 205, example 30), this initial whodunnit is still answered. Note that here I am referring to the title of the thing referenced itself, not to any larger “container” in which the specific thing referenced may reside.
To indicate that this is your invention, not a formal title, your coined title should be enclosed in square brackets (, p. Once you’ve given the author name(s), the year, and the name of the thing being referred to, anything and everything else in the reference entry constitutes the answer to this final question of “where.” References come in more varieties than Baskin-Robbins has ice creams, though, so this portion of a reference has the most permutations.
It ranges from the basic journal name, volume, and page span for journal articles to the online versions where that information is supplemented with a DOI or URL.
Ask your instructor which citation style to use for assignments.
Getting a master’s degree at university, you'll meet APA style.
206–207), or year followed by month and day for newspaper articles (pp. If the item you are referencing does not have a formal title, APA style requires you to provide something to fill out this part of the reference.
If no title exists, you must fill in the blank yourself. Where does this reference come from (or, Where can my reader find this reference)?
A book chapter’s “where” can be quite involved, what with listing editor name(s), the book’s overall title, a page span, and publisher location and name.
References to books available online may dispense with the publisher information, replacing it with a DOI or URL.
The sixth edition of the lays the requirements out pretty bluntly. In most cases, a year will suffice to answer this question. (As said above, that journal name will be used later on.) So, too, with a chapter in an edited book: The “what” is the title of the chapter only.
“Each entry usually contains the following elements: author, year of publication, title, and publishing data—all the information necessary for unique identification and library search” (p. Another way to think of these building blocks, a mnemonic to use in your own construction and review of references, is to remember four interrogatories: Who? A few reference types require more: for instance, year followed by month for papers and poster sessions presented at conferences (, pp. When no year is available or can be ascertained by hook or by crook, this element is maintained by using the abbreviation n.d., for “no date” (p. The name of the edited book in which the chapter resides is not the “what” described here.