Antimicrobial Activity Of Plants Thesis

Antimicrobial Activity Of Plants Thesis-20
The guava (Psidium guajava) is a phytotherapic plant used in folk medicine that is believed to have active components that help to treat and manage various diseases.The many parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine to manage conditions like malaria, gastroenteritis, vomiting, diarrhea, dysentery, wounds, ulcers, toothache, coughs, sore throat, inflamed gums, and a number of other conditions [3–5].No statistically significant differences were observed between the tested extract concentrations and their effect.

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Maceration extraction is crude extraction; solvents diffuse into solid plant material and solubilize compounds with similar polarity [16].

Effect of plant material depends on its origin, variations in the extraction technique, the time, temperature of extraction, solvent concentration and polarity, quantity, and secondary metabolite composition of an extract [17].

Guava crops are grown in tropical and subtropical areas of the world like Asia, Egypt, Hawaii, Florida (Figure 1), Palestine, and others.

The genus Psidium comprises approximately 150 species of small trees and shrubs in which only 20 species produce edible fruits and the rest are wild with inferior quality of fruits [11]. Other species are utilized for regulation of vigor, fruit quality improvement and resistance to pest and disease [11].

The fresh leaves were submerged in distilled water in a 5 L glass bowl and submitted to the hydrodistillation technique for 24 h.

The water and oil mixture were separated by drying with anhydrous sodium sulphate and then filtered.The mechanism by which they can inhibit the microorganisms can involve different modes of action.It has been reported that these oils and extracts penetrate the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane, rendering it more permeable, leading to the leakage of vital cell contents [22, 23]. [24] evaluated the antibacterial activities of guava against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria testing ethanol and water extract of P.guajava leaves, stem, bark and root, and aqueous extract against Staphylococcus aureus were found to be more active by using ethanol and water extract than with just aqueous extract [1, 7]. [25] reported that the oil showed a strong resistance against Yarrowia lipolytica which is a pathogenic yeast. [26] have also reported the antibacterial effect of guava leaves extracts and found that they inhibited the growth of the S. Gnan and Demello [27] testing guava leaf extract found good antimicrobial activity against nine different strains of Staphylococcus aureus.The antibacterial activity of guava leaf extract was tested against acne developing organisms by Qa'dan et al.The most commonly cultivated species of Psidium is P. Guava fruit today is considered minor in terms of commercial world trade, but it is widely grown in the tropics, enriching the diet of hundreds of millions of people in those areas of the world. The guava leaves are 2 to 6 inches long and 1 to 2 inches wide, aromatic when crushed, and appear dull-green with stiff but coriaceous with pronounced veins [12].There are bioactive components in the guava leaf that can fight against pathogens, regulate blood glucose levels, and can even aid in weight loss.The methanol extract had an antibacterial activity with mean zones of inhibition of 8.27 and 12.3 mm, and the ethanol extract had a mean zone of inhibition of 6.11 and 11.0 mm against B. This study provides scientific understanding to further determine the antimicrobial values and investigate other pharmacological properties.Recently there has been a lot of attention focused on producing medicines and products that are natural.The efficacy of these extracts was tested against those bacteria through a well-diffusion method employing 50 μL leaf-extract solution per well.According to the findings of the antibacterial assay, the methanol and ethanol extracts of the guava leaves showed inhibitory activity against gram-positive bacteria, whereas the gram-negative bacteria were resistant to all the solvent extracts. On the basis of the present finding, guava leaf-extract might be a good candidate in the search for a natural antimicrobial agent.

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