Retain these abbreviations because the reader will need them to retrieve the source (you also do not need to define them—just present them as-is).See more about this in our post on cite what you see.Tags: College Paper Writing StylesEssay On Rainy Day In EnglishI Should Be Doing My HomeworkHow To Do EssayComputer Research Paper TopicsConsulting Startup Business PlanTruman Show Essays Perfect WorldCreative Writing Kids
Sometimes an abbreviation is presented along with an in-text citation.
For example, you might cite a test or measure that has an abbreviation and then provide its citation (for a common case, here is how to cite the ). Writing out the full term in the title will ensure potential readers know exactly what you mean, and if your article is formally published, it will ensure it is accurately indexed.
In general, it is not necessary to use abbreviations in the abstract because the abstract is so short.
However, if the abbreviation would help the reader recognize a term or find your article via search, then it is permissible to include an abbreviation in the abstract, even if it is not used three times.
by Chelsea Lee This post will address how to use abbreviations in APA Style—specifically, how to use acronyms, which are abbreviations made up of the first letters of each word in a phrase. You can find abbreviations discussed in the The first time you use an abbreviation in the text, present both the spelled-out version and the short form.
When the spelled-out version first appears in the narrative of the sentence, put the abbreviation in parentheses after it: If your reference has a group author, the name of the group can sometimes be abbreviated—for example, American Psychological Association can be abbreviated to APA.When you use an abbreviation in both the abstract and the text, define it in both places upon first use.does not offer official guidance on whether to use abbreviations in headings.But academic writing uses other Latin abbreviations too.You might have seen ‘et al.’ (‘and others’), ‘ibid.’ (‘in the same place’) and ‘op cit.’ (‘in the work cited’) used for referencing sources.If the name of the group first appears in the narrative, put the abbreviation, a comma, and the year for the citation in parentheses after it.If you have several references by the same group author, you only need to abbreviate the name once (see here for how to handle references with the same author and date).The purpose of defining abbreviations in the table note or figure caption is that if other authors reuse your graphical display in a future paper, the definitions of the terms will be attached.Additionally, many readers will skim an article before reading it closely, and defining abbreviations in tables and figures will allow the readers to understand the abbreviations immediately.You are not obligated to abbreviate the name of a group author, but you can if the abbreviation would help avoid cumbersome repetition and will appear more than three times in the paper.As with other abbreviations, spell out the name of the group upon first mention in the text and then provide the abbreviation.