Another of the most famous of the early physicists was Ptolemy (90–168 CE), one of the leading minds during the time of the Roman Empire.
Ptolemy was the author of several scientific treatises, at least three of which were of continuing importance to later Islamic and European science.
The philosopher Thales of Miletus (7th and 6th centuries BCE), dubbed "the Father of Science" for refusing to accept various supernatural, religious or mythological explanations for natural phenomena, proclaimed that every event had a natural cause.
Thales also made advancements in 580 BCE by suggesting that water is the basic element, experimenting with the attraction between magnets and rubbed amber and formulating the first recorded cosmologies.
This observation made him one of the first scholars in ancient physics to address the role of time in the universe, a key and sometimes contentious concept in modern and present-day physics. first half of the 5th century BCE) adamantly opposed the idea of direct divine intervention in the universe, proposing instead that natural phenomena had a natural cause.
Leucippus and his student Democritus were the first to develop the theory of atomism, the idea that everything is composed entirely of various imperishable, indivisible elements called atoms.Anaximander, famous for his proto-evolutionary theory, disputed the Thales' ideas and proposed that rather than water, a substance called apeiron was the building block of all matter.Around 500 BCE, Heraclitus proposed that the only basic law governing the Universe was the principle of change and that nothing remains in the same state indefinitely.Early in Classical Greece, knowledge that the Earth is spherical ("round") was common.Around 240 BCE, as the result a seminal experiment, Eratosthenes (276–194 BCE) accurately estimated its circumference.Ancient philosophy, meanwhile – including what was called "physics" – focused on explaining nature through ideas such as Aristotle's four types of "cause".The move towards a rational understanding of nature began at least since the Archaic period in Greece (650–480 BCE) with the Pre-Socratic philosophers.Physics (from the Ancient Greek φύσις physis meaning "nature") is a branch of science whose primary objects of study are matter and energy.Discoveries of physics find applications throughout the natural sciences and in technology, since matter and energy are the basic constituents of the natural world.He wrote the first work which refers to that line of study as "Physics" – in the 4th century BCE, Aristotle founded the system known as Aristotelian physics.He attempted to explain ideas such as motion (and gravity) with the theory of four elements.